What would break the back of Jim Crow America? What role did education play in the movement to desgregate America?


BASIC FACTS OF THE CASES (more than one) (check video, Link 1, Link 2, Link 3)
  • Slavery was never legally established in Kansas, so segregation was not as prominent there as it was in the Deep South.
  • Only in elementary schools was segregation in schools permitted.
  • Activists from NAACP filed their case to the U.S. district court in 1951.
  • It eventually ended the segregation in public schools.
  • This case also helped the enforcement of the 14th amendment.
MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE PLAINTIFF (for integration) (check Link 1)
  • They argued that the equal protection of the laws didn't allow racial segregation.
  • They pointed out that the 14th amendment made it illegal for states to segregate U.S. citizens based on their race.
  • The 14th amendment didn't specify whether the states would be allowed to establish segregated schools.
  • Segregation caused negative psychological effects on the young African American children.
MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE DEFENDANTS (for segregation) (check Link 1)
  • The constitution never required African Americans and whites to attend the same schools.
  • Segregation of blacks was a social issue and the states shouldn't be able to regulate their citizen's social affairs.
  • It would take time for the education system to be equal because many African Americans were still suffering from the effects f slavery but the whites were working hard to give the blacks an equal education.
  • Their last and weakest argument was that segregation was not harmful to African Americans.
THE CHANGE IN THE COURT (leading to a decision) (check Link 1)
  • The Supreme Court found the case difficult to decide on from the start.
  • Many of the justices didn't think they could use their power to end all segregation in schools.
  • The judges were also unsure if they could enforce a decision to integrate schools.
  • Earl Warren was appointed as the chief justice. He decided to overturn the Plessy case, which drastically changed the nation's course.
THE COURT DECISION (in your own words) (check Link 1 and Link 2)
  • The court didn't abolish segregation in other public areas, but they did declare that mandatory segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This decision was a giant step towards the complete desegregation of schools.
ENFORCING THE DECISION (discuss "with all deliberate speed) (Check Link 1)
  • The court's
indistinctness in saying states should end the segregation "with all deliberate speed" allowed segregationists to organize and fight the decision.
  • Many whites welcomed the court's decision, but segregationists were afraid and argued that it would alter their way of life.
  • Protests were being held against the Supreme Court's decision as well as against integration.
THE IMPACT and LEGACY (Check **Link 1**
  • The country remained very divided over the issue of equality.
  • The African American struggle for equality spread throughout the country.
  • The movement for equality started to include women, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities as well as many other groups.