BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION
What would break the back of Jim Crow America? What role did education play in the movement to desgregate America?

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BASIC FACTS OF THE CASES (more than one) (check video, Link 1, Link 2, Link 3)
  • Slavery was never legally established in Kansas, so segregation was not as prominent there as it was in the Deep South.
  • Only in elementary schools was segregation in schools permitted.
  • Activists from NAACP filed their case to the U.S. district court in 1951.
  • It eventually ended the segregation in public schools.
  • This case also helped the enforcement of the 14th amendment.
MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE PLAINTIFF (for integration) (check Link 1)
  • They argued that the equal protection of the laws didn't allow racial segregation.
  • They pointed out that the 14th amendment made it illegal for states to segregate U.S. citizens based on their race.
  • The 14th amendment didn't specify whether the states would be allowed to establish segregated schools.
  • Segregation caused negative psychological effects on the young African American children.
MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE DEFENDANTS (for segregation) (check Link 1)
  • The constitution never required African Americans and whites to attend the same schools.
  • Segregation of blacks was a social issue and the states shouldn't be able to regulate their citizen's social affairs.
  • It would take time for the education system to be equal because many African Americans were still suffering from the effects f slavery but the whites were working hard to give the blacks an equal education.
  • Their last and weakest argument was that segregation was not harmful to African Americans.
THE CHANGE IN THE COURT (leading to a decision) (check Link 1)
  • The Supreme Court found the case difficult to decide on from the start.
  • Many of the justices didn't think they could use their power to end all segregation in schools.
  • The judges were also unsure if they could enforce a decision to integrate schools.
  • Earl Warren was appointed as the chief justice. He decided to overturn the Plessy case, which drastically changed the nation's course.
THE COURT DECISION (in your own words) (check Link 1 and Link 2)
  • The court didn't abolish segregation in other public areas, but they did declare that mandatory segregation in schools was unconstitutional. This decision was a giant step towards the complete desegregation of schools.
ENFORCING THE DECISION (discuss "with all deliberate speed) (Check Link 1)
  • The court's
indistinctness in saying states should end the segregation "with all deliberate speed" allowed segregationists to organize and fight the decision.
  • Many whites welcomed the court's decision, but segregationists were afraid and argued that it would alter their way of life.
  • Protests were being held against the Supreme Court's decision as well as against integration.
THE IMPACT and LEGACY (Check **Link 1**
  • The country remained very divided over the issue of equality.
  • The African American struggle for equality spread throughout the country.
  • The movement for equality started to include women, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities as well as many other groups.

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